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196        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

the management of schools, the gymnasium at Strassburg was
widely imitated and did more than any other institution to deter-
mine the common type of humanistic school for Sturm's own
century and for three centuries after.

So far as this meant the end of haphazard methods of organi-
zation and instruction, it was all to the good. Unfortunately,
it also meant the stereotyping of the formal teaching of the
classics. For though Sturm was a broad-minded man and
sided with the new school of thinkers who were trying to break
away from the unreality of the Aristotelian logic, his whole
practice in teaching Latin and Greek made for unreality in another
direction. The aim of education, he said when he began his
work in Strassburg, should be to produce piety—sapiens et
eloquent pietas—and he undoubtedly desired that his pupils
should acquire the knowledge and the power of expression, on
which, as this phrase implied, a worthy piety should be grounded.
But in the actual working out of his ideal in the practice of the
school, eloquentia triumphed over both sapientia and pietas.
Piety suffered least. In the first half of the course, the Catechism
was carefully taught, in German to begin with, and then in Latin ;
and from the sixth year onward St. Paul's Epistles were regularly-
studied. But knowledge, apart from what might be incidentally
acquired in the study of the classics, was completely ignored.
In accordance with the vicious principle that " men have a
nature more ready for speech than for thought and judgment"
and that therefore the training of speech should come first, history,
mathematics and science were deferred till the school course was
over and the higher course begun. Time was not even found
to teach the elements of arithmetic, which appeared in the pre-
liminary programme of studies for the highest school class. The
preponderant interest of the school was the study of the classics
as the fountain-heads of rhetoric and style. The native language
of the pupils was forbidden both inside and outside the class-
room, and ordinary conversation and teaching alike were supposed
to be carried on in Ciceronian Latin. Cicero indeed was the chief
author studied. After two or three years, occupied mainly with
Latin grammar and elementary composition, the greater part
of the time in the succeeding years was devoted to Cicero. And
even when the curriculum of studies broadened out to include
first the Latin and then the Greek authors, the oratorical writings